寫英文論文最常犯的5大錯誤,你中了幾個?提升學術英文寫作功力必看

3 月 19, 2021 | 0 comments

學術英文寫作有別於一般寫作,更注重邏輯性,無論是對於剛起步的新手還是中高階程度的作者來說,都是相當困難的。許多正在準備畢業論文的學生,也常因為沒有在一開始設定好論文架構和論點,導致面臨一再編修等狀況。Englist是一間位於台北,專注於學術英文寫作培訓的教學中心本篇整理台灣學生撰寫英文論文時常見的5大錯誤。

 

延伸閱讀:如何撰寫一篇英文論文

​撰寫英文論文時常見的5大錯誤

1.非母語者的思考盲點- 先寫中文後翻譯

 

許多學生習慣先用母語(中文)撰寫完文章後,再翻譯成英文。若一開始就沒有透過英文思維進行寫作,而只是逐字替換單字,整篇文章便容易出現主詞、動詞、受詞配置錯誤,打亂論述架構。

 

同時,學生也經常忘了留意英文寫作的規範,像是標點符號的使用方式與時機、專有名詞需要大寫等規範。特別留意學術英文寫作經常需要引用資料,然而引號使用的方式也是一門學問。若您也有上述問題,我們建議先從大量閱讀英文開始,並在正確與完善的訓練下,幫助大腦習慣用英文的邏輯思考,下筆時自然能養成文法正確與自然的英文。以下我們以Englist的學生,所撰寫的文章來做為參考範例。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
Many people call Newyork the capitol of the world because it is considered the most busiest and flurishing city in earth. Many people who lived in other cities see Newyork as a dream City and are wishing to move and work in the big apple (another nickname). There are still alot of problems in Newyork. The population distribution makes this city a extremely crowding City which then leads to pollution problems. However, among all these problems, the major problem in Newyork is that no matter what, prices and costs are all very expensive, wich makes peoples life very difficult! Many people call New York the capital of the world because it is the busiest and most flourishing city on Earth. Residents of other cities see New York as a dream city and hope to someday move and to and work in the Big Apple, which is another nickname for the metropolis. Still, there are plenty of problems in New York. One issue is that the city is crowded, which can lead to pollution problems. However, the most serious of all of New York’s issues is that it is expensive to live there, making life difficult for many New Yorkers.

2.偏離主題

 

我們經常提醒學生,寫作最需要遵守的要點就是「保持主題一貫性」!我們常見的狀況是文章開頭有一個清楚的主題,但中間的段落的內容已經向其他主題延伸,逐漸偏離主軸。如不仔細留意,最後很可能得出一個與主軸無關的結論,導致讀者不清楚文章主題以及論述的核心。以下我們以Englist的學生所撰寫的文章來做為參考範例。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
One reason dogs are better pets than cats is that dogs are more social. Sometimes cats can be social too, but dogs are more playful. Dogs like to play in the park and play fetch, but cats prefer to sleep. Sleeping is good for cats, and most animals actually. One reason dogs are better pets than cats is that they are more social. Dogs love to play with other dogs and people, and they get lonely if they don’t have enough social stimulus. Cats, on the other hand, can roam around totally alone and be perfectly fine.

 

【Englist學術英文寫作技巧分享】

不論您的論文長短,請隨時記得要回過頭確保每一個句子、段落、提出的證據、引言以及論述皆與主題契合。在撰寫的過程中,若發現有任何段論或是論述無法幫助支撐主題,可以加強兩者之間的關聯性,或是直接刪除。

 

3.過度使用艱澀的單字

 

許多學生為了讓論文看起來更具專業性,習慣使用較生硬、艱澀的單字來寫作。然而使用複雜的句子結構、文法或是艱澀難懂的詞彙來寫作,容易分散讀者在閱讀論文時的專注力。若使用不當,很可能會讓讀者或教授更難理解文意,達到反效果。別忘了撰寫英文論文的目的是要闡述論述,首要的關鍵是讓讀者理解內容,而非展示英文程度。以下我們以Englist的學生所撰寫的文章來做為參考範例。我們可以看到下面的文章只有部分段落清楚明瞭,也可看到使用過多艱難的詞彙,不僅容易影響文章易讀性,也增加文法錯誤的機率。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
The initial and primary rationale behind the certainty that history as a subject is generally more winsome amongst academic pupils than courses in the field of mathematics is due to the clear and unmistakable truth of historical courses being pervaded with titillating anecdotal experiences, while mathematical classes, on the other hand, are an ordeal of advanced and onerous numerical calculation. As an illustration of this critical notation, in a course on Western, European, or modern history, a pupil will encounter textual treatments of French royalty circa 18th century Gaul and their draconian dealings with their late-medieval peasantry and serfs. One reason history is a more interesting subject than math is because history class is like reading or hearing stories, while math class is just crunching numbers. For example, in history you can read about the French Revolution and the poor treatment of people by King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, or you could hear about Ancient Egyption culture and its powerful pharaohs. In math class, however, you just have to do calculation after calculation. Even when math is complicated, there is a “right answer” and it leaves no room for interpretation or analysis.

 

【Englist學術英文寫作技巧分享】

如同世界著名的認知心理學家兼寫作老師史蒂文·平克(Steven Pinker)所說的,「最好的字彙,不見得是詞藻華麗的詞。」我們建議學生撰寫英文論文時,使用最簡單直接的詞彙,讓讀者也能快速理解文意。

 

4.證據薄弱或與主題無關

 

另一個初學者常犯的錯誤是證據薄弱,無法支撐論點。蒐集證據是撰寫英文論文過程中相當重要的環節,切勿掉以輕心。以下我們以Englist的學生所撰寫的文章來做為參考範例。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
Dumbledore is the wisest character in the Harry Potter series. For example, he says, “Phoenixes burst into flame when it is time for them to die and are reborn from the ashes.” Dumbledore is the wisest character in the Harry Potter series because he has so many powerful quotes. One of his most incisive comes from Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, when he says, “Differences of habit and language are nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts are open.”

 

我們可以看到在錯誤的範例中,舉出的例子與提出的主張並沒有很大的關聯。不僅讓讀者產生混淆感,也無法清楚掌握作者的主張。相對地,在修改後的案例當中,可看出引言和引用出處都使用恰當,且證據與論點關聯性高,也更加有說服力。

學術英文寫作相當注重證據的來源和可靠性,因此需要清楚列出資料來源、學者、研究名稱等相關資訊,才能展現資料的真實與權威性。若只是僅引用Google搜尋的結果,像是「根據科學家…」(according to scientists)、「有研究指出…」(one study shows)等此類寫法,皆會被認定成薄弱的證據。以下我們以Englist的學生所撰寫的文章來做為參考範例。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
For example, according to an article, dogs have larger brains than cats. For example, according to an article by Sarah Gibbons in National Geographic, dogs have twice the number of neurons in their brains as cats do.

 

【Englist學術英文寫作技巧分享】

針對蒐集證據的部分,需要先從學習「研究方法」開始,例如研究流程、引用資料來源方法、如何分析與比較資料等。Englist學術英文寫作級別2的課程,將幫助學生學習如何蒐集、分析資料,培養邏輯思考、建立批判性思維,打好正統學術英文寫作基礎,受用一生。

 

延伸閱讀:學術英文寫作能夠培養出的3大軟實力

 

5.寫作風格冗長、死板

 

很多人以為學好文法和撰寫英文論文的技巧,即表示寫作能力提升,然而這些都只是基本功而已。好的英文論文與個人的寫作風格與邏輯思維能力息息相關,優秀的作家即使是再老掉牙的主題,也都能妙筆生花,寫出一篇生動、有趣的文章。影響文章讀起來生動、流暢的關鍵之一,就在於「選字精煉」,不精準的用詞就容易讓句子冗長,影響文章閱讀的流暢度。像是太頻繁使用被動語態寫作,影響了閱讀的流暢感。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
The ball was kicked by the boy. The boy kicked the ball.

 

此外,過多的連接詞,也會增加句子的沉重感,影響到閱讀效率。

錯誤示範 建議寫法
For example, according to an article, dogs have larger brains than cats. He angered his parents by not doing his chores.

 

最後,我們觀察到學生也容易過度使用單字,試圖增加細節描述,導致語句不順,影響讀者裡對文章的理解程度。

 

錯誤示範 建議寫法
Poverty can greatly affect citizens of a country because it has a significant impact on overall quality of life. Individuals in less fortunate situations can struggle to make ends meet and thus focus more on first order resource concerns as opposed to upgrading quality of life metrics. Poverty is harmful to people and nations because it makes life harder for everyone. Poor people are unable to earn enough money to pay for things like groceries and bills unless they are always working, which means they have less time and energy to spend on things like school and investing.

 

【Englist學術英文寫作技巧分享】

透過紮實的寫作訓練,將可以大幅改善上述的問題。透過Englist的學術英文寫作課程,可有效幫助精煉語句、強化段落鋪陳以及磨練寫作風格。

 

提升英文寫作能力沒有捷徑,持之以恆的專業訓練才能精進寫作能力

 

學術英文寫作不僅僅只是英文能力的展現,同時也考驗了蒐集證據、分析、邏輯思考等能力。Englist學術英文寫作課程是根據學生的英文程度給予客製化的教學。教學方式採取小班制,一對一批改學生的作文。能確保學生跟得上學習進度之外,學生也能更清楚自己的問題與寫作壞習慣,再透過大量的英文閱讀與句子、文章寫作練習,培養他們習慣用英文文法與邏輯去思考,增進英文寫作的技巧。無論您是初階者還是想進一步訓練更高階的學術英文寫作風格,歡迎您聯繫我們,讓我們幫助您達成目標!

 

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